Current national and international policies are committed to gradually reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in particular through diversification of energy production methods, promotion of energy efficiency measures and the development of renewable energies. Many countries are implementing measures favorable to the wind energy sector.
The international framework
In recent years, several treaties on environmental protection have been ratified and support the development of renewable energies.
In particular, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ("UNFCCC"), ratified by 189 countries and entered into force in 1994, aims to encourage developed countries to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, set legally binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions for 37 industrialized countries and the European Community and referred to the promotion of electricity from renewable energy as one of its priorities.
Each year the signatories to the UNFCCC meet. The 21st annual conference of the signatory states, held in Paris in December 2015, allowed the unanimous adoption of the first universal agreement on climate. The treaty notably sets the target of keeping the average rise in global temperatures below 2 ° C by the end of the century and calls for further efforts to limit the rise to 1.5 ° C. Each country will contribute to this objective according to its level of development. National contributions will be reviewed every 5 years. In addition, a minimum of $ 100 billion will be made available, each year from 202, by developed countries to emerging countries to finance projects to fight against climate change. This agreement, widely described as "historic", relies on a long-term vision towards a low carbon model and will allow to accelerate the global energy transition.
In November 2016, the 22nd annual climate conference was held in Marrakech.
Growing attention to global environmental concerns, the need for countries to secure their energy supplies and the significant technological advances made in recent years, support the expected strong growth in the global wind energy market.
The Community legislation
After the 2020 Energy and Climate Package adopted in December 2008, the European Council concluded in October 2014 the 2030 Energy and Climate Package, which sets out the three objectives that will guide the EU's policy against climate change for the next few years. By 2030 the member states should therefore:
- reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level (the only binding objective);
- increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix to 27%; and
- achieve 27% energy savings.